1Spitalul Universitar de Urgență București
Every two years, the National Science Foundation publishes a comprehensive statistical report on scientific research, innovation, science education and public perception of science, named “Science and Engineering Indicators” (SEI). SEI is, naturally, focused on characterising the USA, but for this purpose also includes international comparisons. Romania is mentioned in some of these comparisons, especially in the datasets attached to the SEI report. We searched for the occurence of ‘Romania’ in the text and data, extracted the indicators and statements we found and reprocessed some of the data anexes that also included statistics about our country. Romanian pupils perform around or just below average in TIMSS mathematics and science tests in the fourth grade, but this performance degrades compared to world average in the eighth grade. About 13500 romanians study abroad. Yearly, an average of 120 romanians obtain a doctorate in the USA, particularly in mathematics and physics. 4764 obtain their doctorate in Romania yearly, which per capita is comparable with other EU countries. However, the number of doctorate diplomas per nominal GDP is much higher than the EU range. The number of academic articles per doctorate awarded is much lower in Romania (0.34) than in most developed countries. The overall number of research articles has increased in Romania with 5.8% per year until 2011, an average rate among emerging countries. This increase took place exclusively between 2006 and 2011. Only between 1 and 6 triadic patents were obtained from Romania, yearly, during the last 15 years. In 2010, per million inhabitants, romanians received 0.16 triadic patents, compared to a world average of 7.32. Also, Romania has the highest ratio of articles per triadic patent (515) among the countries considered in SEI (3–471; world average 15.88). Article output from Romania is mostly in physics, chemistry and mathematics, where, per capita and per GDP, it is higher than world average. Biomedical and social science contributions are much lower than world average, but experience high growth rates. Physics and chemistry growth is lower than world average, but mathematics and computer science, besides being well represented, also grow faster than world average. “Knowledge and Technology Intensive” branches of the economy have a much lower contribution to the GDP of Romania than in the whole European Union—about half. However, in nominal terms, between 1997 and 2012, computer programming services increased over 17 times, bussiness and health services over 10 times, education services 9 times and telecomunications 6.70 times, while nominal GDP increased only 4.88 times. High technology manufacturing grew 1.96 times over the same interval, barely above inflation (that was 43%) and well below GDP growth. Thus, mathematics, computer science and the corresponding computer programming services and telecommunications appear as a strong, growing and promising fields of both research and economy. The contrasting low overall performance of secondary school pupils in mathematics, if not suitably addressed, might influence future growth of this sector. Health, business and education services, as well as biomedical and social sciences research are emerging fields, starting from a low base, but growing relatively fast. All manufacturing, as well as physics, chemistry and engineering, are established fields but they are characterised by slow growth. International (triadic) patents are very rare. The high technology manufacturing sectors make the lowest contribution to the GDP and their growth si very slow compared to GDP growth.
Bibliometric Indicators, Triadic Patents, PhD students, Romania, Romanians in the USA, Knowledge
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